Purse - (1.) Gr. balantion, a bag ( Luke 10:4;Luke 22:35,Luke 10:36).

(2.) Gr. zone, properly a girdle ( Matt. 10:9; Mark 6:8), a money-belt. As to our Lord's sending forth his disciples without money in their purses, the remark has been made that in this "there was no departure from the simple manners of the country. At this day the farmer sets out on excursions quite as extensive without a para in his purse; and a modern Moslem prophet of Tarshisha thus sends forth his apostles over this identical region. No traveller in the East would hestitate to throw himself on the hospitality of any village." Thomson's Land and the Book. (See SCRIP.)

Puteoli - a city on the coast of Campania, on the north shore of a bay running north from the Bay of Naples, at which Paul landed on his way to Rome, from which it was distant 170 miles. Here he tarried for seven days ( Acts 28:13,Acts 28:14). This was the great emporium for the Alexandrian corn ships. Here Paul and his companions began their journey, by the "Appian Way," to Rome. It is now called Pozzuoli. The remains of a huge amphitheatre, and of the quay at which Paul landed, may still be seen here.

Put, Phut - (1.) One of the sons of Ham ( Gen. 10:6).

(2.) A land or people from among whom came a portion of the mercenary troops of Egypt, Jer. 46:9 (A.V., "Libyans," but correctly, R.V., "Put"); Ezek. 27:10; Ezek 30:5(A.V., "Libya;" R.V., "Put" Ezek ; 38:5; Nahum 3:9.

Pygarg - Heb. dishon, "springing", ( Deut. 14:5), one of the animals permitted for food. It is supposed to be the Antelope addax. It is described as "a large animal, over 3 1/2 feet high at the shoulder, and, with its gently-twisted horns, 2 1/2 feet long. Its colour is pure white, with the exception of a short black mane, and a tinge of tawny on the shoulders and back.", Tristram's Natural History.

Quails - The Israelites were twice relieved in their privation by a miraculous supply of quails, (1) in the wilderness of Sin ( Ex. 16:13), and (2) again at Kibroth-hattaavah (q.v.), Num. 11:31. God "rained flesh upon them as dust, and feathered fowls like as the sand of the sea" ( Ps. 78:27). The words in Num. 11:31, according to the Authorized Version, appear to denote that the quails lay one above another to the thickness of two cubits above the ground. The Revised Version, however, reads, "about two cubits above the face of the earth", i.e., the quails flew at this height, and were easily killed or caught by the hand. Being thus secured in vast numbers by the people, they "spread them all abroad" Num 11:32) in order to salt and dry them.

These birds (the Coturnix vulgaris of naturalists) are found in countless numbers on the shores of the Mediterranean, and their annual migration is an event causing great excitement.

Quarantania - a mountain some 1,200 feet high, about 7 miles north-west of Jericho, the traditional scene of our Lord's temptation ( Matt. 4:8).

Quarries - (1.) The "Royal Quarries" (not found in Scripture) is the name given to the vast caverns stretching far underneath the northern hill, Bezetha, on which Jerusalem is built. Out of these mammoth caverns stones, a hard lime-stone, have been quarried in ancient times for the buildings in the city, and for the temples of Solomon, Zerubbabel, and Herod. Huge blocks of stone are still found in these caves bearing the marks of pick and chisel. The general appearance of the whole suggests to the explorer the idea that the Phoenician quarrymen have just suspended their work. The supposition that the polished blocks of stone for Solomon's temple were sent by Hiram from Lebanon or Tyre is not supported by any evidence (comp. 1 Kings 5:8). Hiram sent masons and stone-squarers to Jerusalem to assist Solomon's workmen in their great undertaking, but did not send stones to Jerusalem, where, indeed, they were not needed, as these royal quarries abundantly testify.

(2.) The "quarries" (Heb. pesilim) by Gilgal ( Judg. 3:19), from which Ehud turned back for the purpose of carrying out his design to put Eglon king of Moab to death, were probably the "graven images" (as the word is rendered by the LXX. and the Vulgate and in the marg. A.V. and R.V.), or the idol temples the Moabites had erected at Gilgal, where the children of Israel first encamped after crossing the Jordan. The Hebrew word is rendered "graven images" in Deut. 7:25, and is not elsewhere translated "quarries."

Quartus - fourth, a Corinthian Christian who sent by Paul his salutations to friends at Rome ( Rom. 16:23).

Quaternion - a band of four soldiers. Peter was committed by Herod to the custody of four quaternions, i.e., one quaternion for each watch of the night ( Acts 12:4). Thus every precaution was taken against his escape from prison. Two of each quaternion were in turn stationed at the door ( Acts 12:6), and to two the apostle was chained according to Roman custom.

Queen - No explicit mention of queens is made till we read of the "queen of Sheba." The wives of the kings of Israel are not so designated. In Ps. 45:9, the Hebrew for "queen" is not malkah, one actually ruling like the Queen of Sheba, but shegal, which simply means the king's wife. In 1 Kings 11:19, Pharaoh's wife is called "the queen," but the Hebrew word so rendered (g'birah) is simply a title of honour, denoting a royal lady, used sometimes for "queen-mother" (1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chron. 15:16). In Cant. 6:8, Cant. 6:9, the king's wives are styled "queens" (Heb. melakhoth).

In the New Testament we read of the "queen of the south", i.e., Southern Arabia, Sheba ( Matt. 12:42; Luke 11:31) and the "queen of the Ethiopians" ( Acts 8:27), Candace.

Queen of heaven - ( Jer. 7:18;Jer 44:17,Jer. 7:25), the moon, worshipped by the Assyrians as the receptive power in nature.

Quicksands - found only in Acts 27:17, the rendering of the Greek Syrtis. On the north coast of Africa were two localities dangerous to sailors, called the Greater and Lesser Syrtis. The former of these is probably here meant. It lies between Tripoli and Barca, and near Cyrene. The Lesser Syrtis lay farther to the west.

Quiver - the sheath for arrows. The Hebrew word (aspah) thus commonly rendered is found in Job 39:23; Ps. 127:5; Isa. 22:6; Isa 49:2; Jer. 5:16; Lam. 3:13. In Gen. 27:3 this word is the rendering of the Hebrew teli, which is supposed rather to mean a suspended weapon, literally "that which hangs from one", i.e., is suspended from the shoulder or girdle.

Quotations - from the Old Testament in the New, which are very numerous, are not made according to any uniform method. When the New Testament was written, the Old was not divided, as it now is, into chapters and verses, and hence such peculiarities as these: When Luke (20:37) refers to Ex. 3:6, he quotes from "Moses at the bush", i.e., the section containing the record of Moses at the bush. So also Mark (2:26) refers to 1 Sam. 21:1-6, in the words, "in the days of Abiathar;" and Paul (Rom. 11:2) refers to 1 Kings ch. 17-19, in the words, "in Elias", i.e., in the portion of the history regarding Elias.

In general, the New Testament writers quote from the Septuagint (q.v.) version of the Old Testament, as it was then in common use among the Jews. But it is noticeable that these quotations are not made in any uniform manner. Sometimes, e.g., the quotation does not agree literally either with the LXX. or the Hebrew text. This occurs in about one hundred instances. Sometimes the LXX. is literally quoted (in about ninety instances), and sometimes it is corrected or altered in the quotations (in over eighty instances).

Quotations are sometimes made also directly from the Hebrew text ( Matt. 4:15,Matt. 4:16; John 19:37; 1 Cor. 15:54). Besides the quotations made directly, there are found numberless allusions, more or less distinct, showing that the minds of the New Testament writers were filled with the expressions and ideas as well as historical facts recorded in the Old.

There are in all two hundred and eighty-three direct quotations from the Old Testament in the New, but not one clear and certain case of quotation from the Apocrypha (q.v.).

Besides quotations in the New from the Old Testament, there are in Paul's writings three quotations from certain Greek poets, Acts 17:28; 1 Cor. 15:33; Titus 1:12. These quotations are memorials of his early classical education.

Raamah - thunder. (1.) One of the sons of Cush ( Gen. 10:7). (2.) A country which traded with Tyre ( Ezek. 27:22).

Raamiah - thunder of the Lord, one of the princes who returned from the Exile ( Neh. 7:7); called also Reelaiah ( Ezra 2:2).

Raamses - ( Ex. 1:11). (See RAMESES.)

Rabbah - or Rab'bath, great. (1.) "Rabbath of the children of Ammon," the chief city of the Ammonites, among the eastern hills, some 20 miles east of the Jordan, on the southern of the two streams which united with the Jabbok. Here the bedstead of Og was preserved ( Deut. 3:11), perhaps as a trophy of some victory gained by the Ammonites over the king of Bashan. After David had subdued all their allies in a great war, he sent Joab with a strong force to take their city. For two years it held out against its assailants. It was while his army was engaged in this protracted siege that David was guilty of that deed of shame which left a blot on his character and cast a gloom over the rest of his life. At length, having taken the "royal city" (or the "city of waters," 2 Sam. 12:27, i.e., the lower city on the river, as distinguished from the citadel), Joab sent for David to direct the final assault 2 Sam 11:1;2 Sam 12:26-31). The city was given up to plunder, and the people were ruthlessly put to death, and "thus did he with all the cities of the children of Ammon." The destruction of Rabbath was the last of David's conquests. His kingdom now reached its farthest limits (2 Sam. 8:1-15; 1 Chr. 18:1-15). The capture of this city is referred to by Amos 1 Chr 1:14), Jeremiah 1 Chr 49:2,1 Chr 49:3), and Ezekiel 1 Chr 21:20;1 Chr 25:5).

(2.) A city in the hill country of Judah ( Josh. 15:60), possibly the ruin Rubba, six miles north-east of Beit-Jibrin.

Rabbi - my master, a title of dignity given by the Jews to their doctors of the law and their distinguished teachers. It is sometimes applied to Christ ( Matt. 23:7,Matt. 23:8; Mark 9:5 (R.V.); John 1:38, John 1:49; John 3:2; John 6:25, etc.); also to John John 3:26).

Rabboni - (id.) occurs only twice in the New Testament ( Mark 10:51, A.V., "Lord," R.V., "Rabboni;" John 20:16). It was the most honourable of all the titles.

Rabmag - Assyrian Rab-mugi, "chief physician," "who was attached to the king ( Jer. 39:3,Jer. 39:13), the title of one of Sennacherib's officers sent with messages to Hezekiah and the people of Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:17-19:13; Isa. 36:12-37:13) demanding the surrender of the city. He was accompanied by a "great army;" but his mission was unsuccessful.

Rabsaris - chief of the Heads, one of the three officers whom Sennacherib sent from Lachish with a threatening message to Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:17; Jer. 39:3, Jer. 39:13).

Rabshakeh - chief of the princes, the name given to the chief cup-bearer or the vizier of the Assyrian court; one of Sennacherib's messengers to Hezekiah. See the speech he delivered, in the Hebrew language, in the hearing of all the people, as he stood near the wall on the north side of the city (2 Kings 18:17-37). He and the other envoys returned to their master and reported that Hezekiah and his people were obdurate, and would not submit.

Raca - vain, empty, worthless, only found in Matt. 5:22. The Jews used it as a word of contempt. It is derived from a root meaning "to spit."

Rachab - =Rahab, a name found in the genealogy of our Lord ( Matt. 1:5).