Areopagus - the Latin form of the Greek word rendered "Mars' hill." But it denotes also the council or court of justice which met in the open air on the hill. It was a rocky height to the west of the Acropolis at Athens, on the south-east summit of which the council was held which was constituted by Solon, and consisted of nine archons or chief magistrates who were then in office, and the ex-archons of blameless life.

On this hill of Mars (Gr. Ares) Paul delivered his memorable address to the "men of Athens" ( Acts 17:22-31).

Aretas - the father-in-law of Herod Antipas, and king of Arabia Petraea. His daughter returned to him on the occasion of her husband's entering into an adulterous alliance with Herodias, the wife of Herod-Philip, his half-brother ( Luke 3:19,Luke 3:20; Mark 6:17; Matt. 14:3). This led to a war between Aretas and Herod Antipas. Herod's army was wholly destroyed (A.D. 36). Aretas, taking advantage of the complications of the times on account of the death of the Emperor Tiberius (A.D. 37), took possession of Damascus (2 Cor. 11:32; comp. Acts 9:25). At this time Paul returned to Damascus from Arabia.

Argob - stony heap, an "island," as it has been called, of rock about 30 miles by 20, rising 20 or 30 feet above the table-land of Bashan; a region of crags and chasms wild and rugged in the extreme. On this "island" stood sixty walled cities, ruled over by Og. It is called Trachonitis ("the rugged region") in the New Testament ( Luke 3:1). These cities were conquered by the Israelites ( Deut. 3:4; 1 Kings 4:13). It is now called the Lejah. Here "sixty walled cities are still traceable in a space of 308 square miles. The architecture is ponderous and massive. Solid walls 4 feet thick, and stones on one another without cement; the roofs enormous slabs of basaltic rock, like iron; the doors and gates are of stone 18 inches thick, secured by ponderous bars. The land bears still the appearance of having been called the 'land of giants' under the giant Og." "I have more than once entered a deserted city in the evening, taken possession of a comfortable house, and spent the night in peace. Many of the houses in the ancient cities of Bashan are perfect, as if only finished yesterday. The walls are sound, the roofs unbroken, and even the window-shutters in their places. These ancient cities of Bashan probably contain the very oldest specimens of domestic architecture in the world" (Porter's Giant Cities). (See BASHAN.)

Arieh - the lion, the name of one of the body-guard slain with Pekahiah at Samaria (2 Kings 15:25) by the conspirator Pekah.

Ariel - the lion of God. (1.) One of the chief men sent by Ezra to procure Levites for the sanctuary ( Ezra 8:16).

(2.) A symbolic name for Jerusalem ( Isa. 29:1,Isa. 29:2,Isa. 29:7) as "victorious under God," and in Ezek. 43:15, Ezek. 43:16, for the altar (marg., Heb. 'ariel) of burnt offerings, the secret of Israel's lion-like strength.

Arimathea - a "city of the Jews" ( Luke 23:51), the birth-place of Joseph in whose sepulchre our Lord was laid ( Matt. 27:57,Matt. 27:60; John 19:38). It is probably the same place as Ramathaim in Ephraim, and the birth-place of Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1,1 Sam. 1:19). Others identify it with Ramleh in Dan, or Rama (q.v.) in Benjamin ( Matt. 2:18).

Arioch - lion-like, venerable. (1.) A king of Ellasar who was confederate with Chedorlamer ( Gen. 14:1,Gen. 14:9). The tablets recently discovered by Mr. Pinches (see CHALDEA ) show the true reading is Eri-Aku of Larsa. This Elamite name meant "servant of the moon-god." It was afterwards changed into Rimin, "Have mercy, O moon-god." (2.) Dan. 2:14.

Aristarchus - best ruler, native of Thessalonica ( Acts 20:4), a companion of Paul ( Acts 19:29;Acts 27:2). He was Paul's "fellow-prisoner" at Rome ( Col. 4:10; Philemon 1:24).

Aristobulus - a Roman mentioned in Paul's Epistle to the Romans Philemon 16:10), whose "household" is saluated.

Ark - Noah's ark, a building of gopher-wood, and covered with pitch, 300 cubits long, 50 cubits broad, and 30 cubits high ( Gen. 6:14-16); an oblong floating house of three stories, with a door in the side and a window in the roof. It was 100 years in building ( Gen. 5:32;Gen 7:6). It was intended to preserve certain persons and animals from the deluge which God was about to bring over the earth. It contained eight persons ( Gen. 7:13; 2 Pet. 2:5), and of all "clean" animals seven pairs, and of "unclean" one pair, and of birds seven pairs of each sort ( Gen. 7:2,Gen. 7:3). It was in the form of an oblong square, with flat bottom and sloping roof. Traditions of the Deluge, by which the race of man was swept from the earth, and of the ark of Noah have been found existing among all nations.

The ark of bulrushes in which the infant Moses was laid ( Ex. 2:3) is called in the Hebrew teebah, a word derived from the Egyptian teb, meaning "a chest." It was daubed with slime and with pitch. The bulrushes of which it was made were the papyrus reed.

The sacred ark is designated by a different Hebrew word, 'aron', which is the common name for a chest or coffer used for any purpose ( Gen. 50:26; 2 Kings 12:9,2 Kings 12:10). It is distinguished from all others by such titles as the "ark of God" (1 Sam. 3:3), "ark of the covenant" ( Josh. 3:6; Heb. 9:4), "ark of the testimony" ( Ex. 25:22). It was made of acacia or shittim wood, a cubit and a half broad and high and two cubits long, and covered all over with the purest gold. Its upper surface or lid, the mercy-seat, was surrounded with a rim of gold; and on each of the two sides were two gold rings, in which were placed two gold-covered poles by which the ark could be carried ( Num. 7:9;Num 10:21;Num 4:5,Num. 7:19,Num. 7:20; 1 Kings 8:3,1 Kings 8:6). Over the ark, at the two extremities, were two cherubim, with their faces turned toward each other ( Lev. 16:2; Num. 7:89). Their outspread wings over the top of the ark formed the throne of God, while the ark itself was his footstool ( Ex. 25:10-22;Ex 37:1-9). The ark was deposited in the "holy of holies," and was so placed that one end of the poles by which it was carried touched the veil which separated the two apartments of the tabernacle (1 Kings 8:8). The two tables of stone which constituted the "testimony" or evidence of God's covenant with the people ( Deut. 31:26), the "pot of manna" ( Ex. 16:33), and "Aaron's rod that budded" ( Num. 17:10), were laid up in the ark ( Heb. 9:4). (See TABERNACLE ) The ark and the sanctuary were "the beauty of Israel" ( Lam. 2:1). During the journeys of the Israelites the ark was carried by the priests in advance of the host ( Num. 4:5,Num. 4:6;Num 10:33-36; Ps. 68:1; Ps 132:8). It was borne by the priests into the bed of the Jordan, which separated, opening a pathway for the whole of the host to pass over ( Josh. 3:15,Josh. 3:16;Josh 4:7,Josh. 3:10,Josh. 3:11,Josh. 3:17,Josh. 3:18). It was borne in the procession round Jericho ( Josh. 6:4,Josh. 6:6,Josh. 6:8,Josh. 6:11,Josh. 6:12). When carried it was always wrapped in the veil, the badgers' skins, and blue cloth, and carefully concealed even from the eyes of the Levites who carried it. After the settlement of Israel in Palestine the ark remained in the tabernacle at Gilgal for a season, and was then removed to Shiloh till the time of Eli, between 300 and 400 years ( Jer. 7:12), when it was carried into the field of battle so as to secure, as they supposed, victory to the Hebrews, and was taken by the Philistines (1 Sam. 4:3-11), who sent it back after retaining it seven months (1 Sam. 5:7,1 Sam. 5:8). It remained then at Kirjath-jearim 1 Sam 7:1,1 Sam 7:2) till the time of David (twenty years), who wished to remove it to Jerusalem; but the proper mode of removing it having been neglected, Uzzah was smitten with death for putting "forth his hand to the ark of God," and in consequence of this it was left in the house of Obed-edom in Gath-rimmon for three months (2 Sam. 6:1-11), at the end of which time David removed it in a grand procession to Jerusalem, where it was kept till a place was prepared for it (12-19). It was afterwards deposited by Solomon in the temple (1 Kings 8:6-9). When the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and plundered the temple, the ark was probably taken away by Nebuchadnezzar and destroyed, as no trace of it is afterwards to be found. The absence of the ark from the second temple was one of the points in which it was inferior to the first temple.

Arkite - ( Gen. 10:17; 1 Chr. 1:15), a designation of certain descendants from the Phoenicians or Sidonians, the inhabitants of Arka, 12 miles north of Tripoli, opposite the northern extremity of Lebanon.

Arm - used to denote power ( Ps. 10:15; Ezek. 30:21; Jer. 48:25). It is also used of the omnipotence of God ( Ex. 15:16; Ps. 89:13; Ps 98:1; Ps 77:15; Isa. 53:1; John 12:38; Acts 13:17)

Armageddon - occurs only in Rev. 16:16 (R.V., "Har-Magedon"), as symbolically designating the place where the "battle of that great day of God Almighty" (ver. 14) shall be fought. The word properly means the "mount of Megiddo." It is the scene of the final conflict between Christ and Antichrist. The idea of such a scene was suggested by the Old Testament great battle-field, the plain of Esdraelon (q.v.).

Armenia - high land, occurs only in Authorized Version, 2 Kings 19:37; in Revised Version, "Ararat," which is the Hebrew word. A country in western Asia lying between the Caspian and the Black Sea. Here the ark of Noah rested after the Deluge ( Gen. 8:4). It is for the most part high table-land, and is watered by the Aras, the Kur, the Euphrates, and the Tigris. Ararat was properly the name of a part of ancient Armenia. Three provinces of Armenia are mentioned in Jer. 51:27, Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz. Some, however, think Minni a contraction for Armenia. (See ARARAT.)

Armoni - inhabitant of a fortress, the first-named of the two sons of Saul and Rizpah. He was delivered up to the Gibeonites by David, and hanged by them (2 Sam. 21:8,2 Sam. 21:9).

Armour - is employed in the English Bible to denote military equipment, both offensive and defensive.

(1.) The offensive weapons were different at different periods of history. The "rod of iron" ( Ps. 2:9) is supposed to mean a mace or crowbar, an instrument of great power when used by a strong arm. The "maul" ( Prov. 25:18; cognate Hebrew word rendered "battle-axe" in Jer. 51:20, and "slaughter weapon" in Ezek. 9:2) was a war-hammer or martel. The "sword" is the usual translation of hereb, which properly means "poniard." The real sword, as well as the dirk-sword (which was always double-edged), was also used (1 Sam. 17:39; 2 Sam. 20:8; 1 Kings 20:11). The spear was another offensive weapon ( Josh. 8:18; 1 Sam. 17:7). The javelin was used by light troops ( Num. 25:7,Num. 25:8; 1 Sam. 13:22). Saul threw a javelin at David (1 Sam. 19:9,1 Sam. 19:10), and so virtually absolved him from his allegiance. The bow was, however, the chief weapon of offence. The arrows were carried in a quiver, the bow being always unbent till the moment of action ( Gen. 27:3;Gen 48:22; Ps. 18:34). The sling was a favourite weapon of the Benjamites (1 Sam. 17:40; 1 Chr. 12:2. Comp. 1 Sam. 25:29).

(2.) Of the defensive armour a chief place is assigned to the shield or buckler. There were the great shield or target (the tzinnah), for the protection of the whole person ( Gen. 15:1; Ps. 47:9; 1 Sam. 17:7; Prov. 30:5), and the buckler (Heb. mageen) or small shield (1 Kings 10:17; Ezek. 26:8). In Ps. 91:4 "buckler" is properly a roundel appropriated to archers or slingers. The helmet ( Ezek. 27:10; 1 Sam. 17:38), a covering for the head; the coat of mail or corselet (1 Sam. 17:5), or habergeon (Neh. 4;16), harness or breat-plate ( Rev. 9:9), for the covering of the back and breast and both upper arms ( Isa. 59:17; Eph. 6:14). The cuirass and corselet, composed of leather or quilted cloth, were also for the covering of the body. Greaves, for the covering of the legs, were worn in the time of David (1 Sam. 17:6). Reference is made by Paul ( Eph. 6:14-17) to the panoply of a Roman soldier. The shield here is the thureon, a door-like oblong shield above all, i.e., covering the whole person, not the small round shield. There is no armour for the back, but only for the front.

Armour-bearer - an officer selected by kings and generals because of his bravery, not only to bear their armour, but also to stand by them in the time of danger. They were the adjutants of our modern armies ( Judg. 9:54; 1 Sam. 14:7;1 Sam 16:21;1 Sam 31:6).

Armoury - the place in which armour was deposited when not used ( Neh. 3:19; Jer. 50:25). At first each man of the Hebrews had his own arms, because all went to war. There were no arsenals or magazines for arms till the time of David, who had a large collection of arms, which he consecrated to the Lord in his tabernacle (1 Sa ,. 21:9; 2 Sam. 8:7-12; 1 Chr. 26:26,1 Chr. 26:27).

Army - The Israelites marched out of Egypt in military order ( Ex. 13:18, "harnessed;" marg., "five in a rank"). Each tribe formed a battalion, with its own banner and leader ( Num. 2:2;Num 10:14). In war the army was divided into thousands and hundreds under their several captains ( Num. 31:14), and also into families ( Num. 2:34; 2 Chr. 25:5;2 Chr 26:12). From the time of their entering the land of Canaan to the time of the kings, the Israelites made little progress in military affairs, although often engaged in warfare. The kings introduced the custom of maintaining a bodyguard (the Gibborim; i.e., "heroes"), and thus the nucleus of a standing army was formed. Saul had an army of 3,000 select warriors (1 Sam. 13:2;1 Sam 14:52;1 Sam 24:2). David also had a band of soldiers around him (1 Sam. 23:13;1 Sam 25:13). To this band he afterwards added the Cherethites and the Pelethites (2 Sam. 15:18;2 Sam 20:7). At first the army consisted only of infantry (1 Sam. 4:10;1 Sam 15:4), as the use of horses was prohibited ( Deut. 17:16); but chariots and horses were afterwards added (2 Sam. 8:4; 1 Kings 10:26,1 Kings 10:28,1 Kings 10:29; 1 Kings 9:19). In 1 Kings 9:22 there is given a list of the various gradations of rank held by those who composed the army. The equipment and maintenance of the army were at the public expense (2 Sam. 17:28,2 Sam. 17:29; 1 Kings 4:27;1 Kings 10:16,1 Kings 4:17; Judg. 20:10). At the Exodus the number of males above twenty years capable of bearing arms was 600,000 ( Ex. 12:37). In David's time it mounted to the number of 1,300,000 (2 Sam. 24:9).

Arnon - swift, the southern boundary of the territory of Israel beyond Jordan, separating it from the land of Moab ( Deut. 3:8,Deut. 3:16). This river (referred to twenty-four times in the Bible) rises in the mountains of Gilead, and after a circuitous course of about 80 miles through a deep ravine it falls into the Dead Sea nearly opposite Engedi. The stream is almost dry in summer. It is now called el-Mujeb. The territory of the Amorites extended from the Arnon to the Jabbok.

Aroer - ruins. (1.) A town on the north bank of the Arnon ( Deut. 4:48; Judg. 11:26; 2 Kings 10:33), the southern boundary of the kingdom of Sihon ( Josh. 12:2). It is now called Arair, 13 miles west of the Dead Sea.

(2.) One of the towns built by the tribe of Gad ( Num. 32:34) "before Rabbah" ( Josh. 13:25), the Ammonite capital. It was famous in the history of Jephthah ( Judg. 11:33) and of David (2 Sam. 24:5). (Comp. Isa. 17:2; 2 Kings 15:29.)

(3.) A city in the south of Judah, 12 miles south-east of Beersheba, to which David sent presents after recovering the spoil from the Amalekites at Ziklag (1 Sam. 30:26,1 Sam. 30:28). It was the native city of two of David's warriors (1 Chr. 11:44). It is now called Ar'arah.

Arpad - ( Isa. 10:9;Isa 36:19;Isa 37:13), also Arphad, support, a Syrian city near Hamath, along with which it is invariably mentioned (2 Kings 19:13;2 Kings 18:34; Isa. 10:9), and Damascus ( Jer. 49:23). After a siege of three years it fell (B.C. 742) before the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser II. Now Tell Erfud.

Arphaxad - son of Shem, born the year after the Deluge. He died at the age of 438 years ( Gen. 11:10-13; 1 Chr. 1:17,1 Chr. 1:18; Luke 3:36). He dwelt in Mesopotamia, and became, according to the Jewish historian Josephus, the progenitor of the Chaldeans. The tendency is to recognize in the word the name of the country nearest the ancient domain of the Chaldeans. Some regard the word as an Egypticized form of the territorial name of Ur Kasdim, or Ur of the Chaldees.

Arrows - At first made of reeds, and then of wood tipped with iron. Arrows are sometimes figuratively put for lightning ( Deut. 32:23,Deut. 32:42; Ps. 7:13; Ps 18:14; Ps 144:6; Zech. 9:14). They were used in war as well as in the chase ( Gen. 27:3;Gen 49:23). They were also used in divination ( Ezek. 21:21).

The word is frequently employed as a symbol of calamity or disease inflicted by God ( Job 6:4;Job 34:6; Ps. 38:2; Deut. 32:23. Comp. Ezek. 5:16), or of some sudden danger ( Ps. 91:5), or bitter words ( Ps. 64:3), or false testimony ( Prov. 25:18).

Artaxerxes - the Greek form of the name of several Persian kings. (1.) The king who obstructed the rebuilding of the temple ( Ezra 4:7). He was probably the Smerdis of profane history.

(2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 7:1, in the seventh year (B.C. 458) of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to Jerusalem, was probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years (B.C. 464-425); the grandson of Darius, who, fourteen years later, permitted Nehemiah to return and rebuild Jerusalem.

Artificer - a person engaged in any kind of manual occupation ( Gen. 4:22; Isa. 3:3).