Anammelech - one of the gods worshipped by the people of Sepharvaim, who colonized Samaria (2 Kings 17:31). The name means "Anu is king." It was a female deity representing the moon, as Adrammelech (q.v.) was the male representing the sun.
Anan - cloud, one of the Israelites who sealed the covenant after the return from Babylon ( Neh. 10:26).
Ananiah - protected by Jehovah, the name of a town in the tribe of Benjamin between Nob and Hazor ( Neh. 11:32). It is probably the modern Beit Hanina, a small village 3 miles north of Jerusalem.
Ananias - a common Jewish name, the same as Hananiah. (1.) One of the members of the church at Jerusalem, who conspired with his wife Sapphira to deceive the brethren, and who fell down and immediately expired after he had uttered the falsehood ( Acts 5:5). By common agreement the members of the early Christian community devoted their property to the work of furthering the gospel and of assisting the poor and needy. The proceeds of the possessions they sold were placed at the disposal of the apostles ( Acts 4:36,Acts 4:37). Ananias might have kept his property had he so chosen; but he professed agreement with the brethren in the common purpose, and had of his own accord devoted it all, as he said, to these sacred ends. Yet he retained a part of it for his own ends, and thus lied in declaring that he had given it all. "The offence of Ananias and Sapphira showed contempt of God, vanity and ambition in the offenders, and utter disregard of the corruption which they were bringing into the society. Such sin, committed in despite of the light which they possessed, called for a special mark of divine indignation."
(2.) A Christian at Damascus ( Acts 9:10). He became Paul's instructor; but when or by what means he himself became a Christian we have no information. He was "a devout man according to the law, having a good report of all the Jews which dwelt" at Damascus ( Acts 22:12).
(3.) The high priest before whom Paul was brought in the procuratorship of Felix ( Acts 23:2,Acts 23:5,Acts 23:24). He was so enraged at Paul's noble declaration, "I have lived in all good conscience before God until this day," that he commanded one of his attendants to smite him on the mouth. Smarting under this unprovoked insult, Paul quickly replied, "God shall smite thee, thou whited wall." Being reminded that Ananias was the high priest, to whose office all respect was to be paid, he answered, "I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest" ( Acts 23:5). This expression has occasioned some difficulty, as it is scarcely probable that Paul should have been ignorant of so public a fact. The expression may mean (a) that Paul had at the moment overlooked the honour due to the high priest; or (b), as others think, that Paul spoke ironically, as if he had said, "The high priest breaking the law! God's high priest a tyrant and a lawbreaker! I see a man in white robes, and have heard his voice, but surely it cannot, it ought not to be, the voice of the high priest." (See Dr. Lindsay on Acts, in loco.) (c) Others think that from defect of sight Paul could not observe that the speaker was the high priest. In all this, however, it may be explained, Paul, with all his excellency, comes short of the example of his divine Master, who, when he was reviled, reviled not again.
Anath - an answer; i.e., to "prayer", the father of Shamgar, who was one of the judges of Israel ( Judg. 3:31).
Anathema - anything laid up or suspended; hence anything laid up in a temple or set apart as sacred. In this sense the form of the word is anath(ee)ma, once in plural used in the Greek New Testament, in Luke 21:5, where it is rendered "gifts." In the LXX. the form anathema is generally used as the rendering of the Hebrew word herem, derived from a verb which means (1) to consecrate or devote; and (2) to exterminate. Any object so devoted to the Lord could not be redeemed ( Num. 18:14; Lev. 27:28, Lev. 27:29); and hence the idea of exterminating connected with the word. The Hebrew verb (haram) is frequently used of the extermination of idolatrous nations. It had a wide range of application. The anathema_ or _herem was a person or thing irrevocably devoted to God ( Lev. 27:21,Lev. 27:28); and "none devoted shall be ransomed. He shall surely be put to death" ( Lev 27:29). The word therefore carried the idea of devoted to destruction ( Num. 21:2,Num. 21:3; Josh. 6:17); and hence generally it meant a thing accursed. In Deut. 7:26 an idol is called a herem = anathema, a thing accursed.
In the New Testament this word always implies execration. In some cases an individual denounces an anathema on himself unless certain conditions are fulfilled ( Acts 23:12,Acts 23:14,Acts 23:21). "To call Jesus accursed" [anathema] (1 Cor. 12:3) is to pronounce him execrated or accursed. If any one preached another gospel, the apostle says, "let him be accursed" ( Gal. 1:8,Gal. 1:9); i.e., let his conduct in so doing be accounted accursed.
In Rom. 9:3, the expression "accursed" (anathema) from Christ, i.e., excluded from fellowship or alliance with Christ, has occasioned much difficulty. The apostle here does not speak of his wish as a possible thing. It is simply a vehement expression of feeling, showing how strong was his desire for the salvation of his people.
The anathema in 1 Cor. 16:22 denotes simply that they who love not the Lord are rightly objects of loathing and execration to all holy beings; they are guilty of a crime that merits the severest condemnation; they are exposed to the just sentence of "everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord."
Anathoth - the name of one of the cities of refuge, in the tribe of Benjamin ( Josh. 21:18). The Jews, as a rule, did not change the names of the towns they found in Palestine; hence this town may be regarded as deriving its name from the goddess Anat. It was the native place of Abiezer, one of David's "thirty" (2 Sam. 23:27), and of Jehu, another of his mighty men (1 Chr. 12:3). It is chiefly notable, however, as the birth-place and usual residence of Jeremiah ( Jer. 1:1;Jer 11:21-23;Jer 29:27;Jer 32:7-9). It suffered greatly from the army of Sennacherib, and only 128 men returned to it from the Exile ( Neh. 7:27; Ezra 2:23). It lay about 3 miles north of Jerusalem. It has been identified with the small and poor village of 'Anata, containing about 100 inhabitants.
Anchor - From Acts 27:29, Acts 27:30, Acts 27:40, it would appear that the Roman vessels carried several anchors, which were attached to the stern as well as to the prow. The Roman anchor, like the modern one, had two teeth or flukes. In Heb. 6:19 the word is used metaphorically for that which supports or keeps one steadfast in the time of trial or of doubt. It is an emblem of hope.
"If you fear, Put all your trust in God: that anchor holds."
Ancient of Days - an expression applied to Jehovah three times in the vision of Daniel Heb 7:9, Heb 7:13, Heb 7:22) in the sense of eternal. In contrast with all earthly kings, his days are past reckoning.
Andrew - manliness, a Greek name; one of the apostles of our Lord. He was of Bethsaida in Galilee ( John 1:44), and was the brother of Simon Peter ( Matt. 4:18;Matt 10:2). On one occasion John the Baptist, whose disciple he then was, pointing to Jesus, said, "Behold the Lamb of God" ( John 1:40); and Andrew, hearing him, immediately became a follower of Jesus, the first of his disciples. After he had been led to recognize Jesus as the Messiah, his first care was to bring also his brother Simon to Jesus. The two brothers seem to have after this pursued for a while their usual calling as fishermen, and did not become the stated attendants of the Lord till after John's imprisonment ( Matt. 4:18,Matt. 4:19; Mark 1:16, Mark 1:17). Very little is related of Andrew. He was one of the confidential disciples ( John 6:8;John 12:22), and with Peter, James, and John inquired of our Lord privately regarding his future coming ( Mark 13:3). He was present at the feeding of the five thousand ( John 6:9), and he introduced the Greeks who desired to see Jesus ( John 12:22); but of his subsequent history little is known. It is noteworthy that Andrew thrice brings others to Christ, (1) Peter; (2) the lad with the loaves; and (3) certain Greeks. These incidents may be regarded as a key to his character.
Andronicus - man-conquering, a Jewish Christian, the kinsman and fellowprisoner of Paul ( Rom. 16:7); "of note among the apostles."
Anem - two fountains, a Levitical city in the tribe of Issachar (1 Chr. 6:73). It is also called En-gannim (q.v.) in Josh. 19:21; the modern Jenin.
Aner - a boy. (1.) A Canaanitish chief who joined his forces with those of Abraham in pursuit of Chedorlaomer ( Gen. 14:13,Gen. 14:24).
(2.) A city of Manasseh given to the Levites of Kohath's family (1 Chr. 6:70).
Angel - a word signifying, both in the Hebrew and Greek, a "messenger," and hence employed to denote any agent God sends forth to execute his purposes. It is used of an ordinary messenger ( Job 1:14 and 1 Sam. 11:3; Luke 7:24; Luke 9:52), of prophets ( Isa. 42:19; Hag. 1:13), of priests ( Mal. 2:7), and ministers of the New Testament ( Rev. 1:20).
It is also applied to such impersonal agents as the pestilence (2 Sam. 24:16,2 Sam. 24:17; 2 Kings 19:35), the wind ( Ps. 104:4).
But its distinctive application is to certain heavenly intelligences whom God employs in carrying on his government of the world. The name does not denote their nature but their office as messengers. The appearances to Abraham at Mamre ( Gen. 18:2,Gen. 18:22. Comp. 19:1), to Jacob at Peniel ( Gen. 32:24,Gen. 32:30), to Joshua at Gilgal ( Josh. 5:13,Josh. 5:15), of the Angel of the Lord, were doubtless manifestations of the Divine presence, "foreshadowings of the incarnation," revelations before the "fulness of the time" of the Son of God.
(1.) The existence and orders of angelic beings can only be discovered from the Scriptures. Although the Bible does not treat of this subject specially, yet there are numerous incidental details that furnish us with ample information. Their personal existence is plainly implied in such passages as Gen. 16:7, Gen. 16:10, Gen. 16:11; Judg. 13:1-21; Matt. 28:2-5; Heb. 1:4, etc.
These superior beings are very numerous. "Thousand thousands," etc. ( Dan. 7:10; Matt. 26:53; Luke 2:13; Heb. 12:22, Heb. 12:23). They are also spoken of as of different ranks in dignity and power ( Zech. 1:9,Zech. 1:11; Dan. 10:13; Dan 12:1; 1 Thess. 4:16; Jude 1:9; Eph. 1:21; Col. 1:16).
(2.) As to their nature, they are spirits ( Heb. 1:14), like the soul of man, but not incorporeal. Such expressions as "like the angels" ( Luke 20:36), and the fact that whenever angels appeared to man it was always in a human form ( Gen. 18:2;Gen 19:1,Gen. 18:10; Luke 24:4; Acts 1:10), and the titles that are applied to them ("sons of God," Job 1:6; Job 38:7; Dan. 3:25; comp. 28) and to men ( Luke 3:38), seem all to indicate some resemblance between them and the human race. Imperfection is ascribed to them as creatures ( Job 4:18; Matt. 24:36; 1 Pet. 1:12). As finite creatures they may fall under temptation; and accordingly we read of "fallen angels." Of the cause and manner of their "fall" we are wholly ignorant. We know only that "they left their first estate" ( Matt. 25:41; Rev. 12:7, Rev. 12:9), and that they are "reserved unto judgement" (2 Pet. 2:4). When the manna is called "angels' food," this is merely to denote its excellence ( Ps. 78:25). Angels never die ( Luke 20:36). They are possessed of superhuman intelligence and power ( Mark 13:32; 2 Thess. 1:7; Ps. 103:20). They are called "holy" ( Luke 9:26), "elect" (1 Tim. 5:21). The redeemed in glory are "like unto the angels" ( Luke 20:36). They are not to be worshipped ( Col. 2:18; Rev. 19:10).
(3.) Their functions are manifold. (a) In the widest sense they are agents of God's providence ( Ex. 12:23; Ps. 104:4; Heb. 11:28; 1 Cor. 10:10; 2 Sam. 24:16; 1 Chr. 21:16; 2 Kings 19:35; Acts 12:23). (b) They are specially God's agents in carrying on his great work of redemption. There is no notice of angelic appearances to man till after the call of Abraham. From that time onward there are frequent references to their ministry on earth ( Gen. 18; 19; 24:7,Gen. 18; 19; 24:40;Gen 28:12;Gen 32:1). They appear to rebuke idolatry ( Judg. 2:1-4), to call Gideon ( Judg. 6:11,Judg. 6:12), and to consecrate Samson ( Judg 13:3). In the days of the prophets, from Samuel downward, the angels appear only in their behalf (1 Kings 19:5; 2 Kings 6:17; Zech. 1-6; Dan. 4:13, Dan. 4:23; Dan 10:10, Dan. 4:13, Dan. 4:20, Dan. 4:21).
The Incarnation introduces a new era in the ministrations of angels. They come with their Lord to earth to do him service while here. They predict his advent ( Matt. 1:20; Luke 1:26-38), minister to him after his temptation and agony ( Matt. 4:11; Luke 22:43), and declare his resurrection and ascension ( Matt. 28:2-8; John 20:12, John 20:13; Acts 1:10, Acts 1:11). They are now ministering spirits to the people of God ( Heb. 1:14; Ps. 34:7; Ps 91:11; Matt. 18:10; Acts 5:19; Acts 8:26; Acts 10:3; Acts 12:7; Acts 27:23). They rejoice over a penitent sinner ( Luke 15:10). They bear the souls of the redeemed to paradise ( Luke 16:22); and they will be the ministers of judgement hereafter on the great day ( Matt. 13:39,Matt. 13:41,Matt. 13:49;Matt 16:27;Matt 24:31). The passages ( Ps. 34:7, Matt. 18:10) usually referred to in support of the idea that every individual has a particular guardian angel have no such meaning. They merely indicate that God employs the ministry of angels to deliver his people from affliction and danger, and that the angels do not think it below their dignity to minister even to children and to the least among Christ's disciples.
The "angel of his presence" ( Isa. 63:9. Comp. Ex. 23:20, Ex. 23:21; Ex 32:34; Ex 33:2; Num. 20:16) is probably rightly interpreted of the Messiah as the guide of his people. Others have supposed the expression to refer to Gabriel ( Luke 1:19).
Anger - the emotion of instant displeasure on account of something evil that presents itself to our view. In itself it is an original susceptibility of our nature, just as love is, and is not necessarily sinful. It may, however, become sinful when causeless, or excessive, or protracted ( Matt. 5:22; Eph. 4:26; Col. 3:8). As ascribed to God, it merely denotes his displeasure with sin and with sinners ( Ps. 7:11).
Anim - fountains, a city in the mountains of Judah ( Josh. 15:50), now el-Ghuwein, near Eshtemoh, about 10 miles south-west of Hebron.
Animal - an organized living creature endowed with sensation. The Levitical law divided animals into clean and unclean, although the distinction seems to have existed before the Flood ( Gen. 7:2). The clean could be offered in sacrifice and eaten. All animals that had not cloven hoofs and did not chew the cud were unclean. The list of clean and unclean quadrupeds is set forth in the Levitical law ( Deut. 14:3-20; Lev. 11).
Anise - This word is found only in Matt. 23:23. It is the plant commonly known by the name of dill, the Peucedanum graveolens of the botanist. This name dill is derived from a Norse word which means to soothe, the plant having the carminative property of allaying pain. The common dill, the Anethum graveolens, is an annual growing wild in the cornfields of Spain and Portugal and the south of Europe generally. There is also a species of dill cultivated in Eastern countries known by the name of shubit. It was this species of garden plant of which the Pharisees were in the habit of paying tithes. The Talmud requires that the seeds, leaves, and stem of dill shall pay tithes. It is an umbelliferous plant, very like the caraway, its leaves, which are aromatic, being used in soups and pickles. The proper anise is the Pimpinella anisum.
Anna - grace, an aged widow, the daughter of Phanuel. She was a "prophetess," like Miriam, Deborah, and Huldah (2 Chr. 34:22). After seven years of married life her husband died, and during her long widowhood she daily attended the temple services. When she was eighty-four years old, she entered the temple at the moment when the aged Simeon uttered his memorable words of praise and thanks to God that he had fulfilled his ancient promise in sending his Son into the world ( Luke 2:36,Luke 2:37).
Annas - was high priest A.D. 7-14. In A.D. 25 Caiaphas, who had married the daughter of Annas ( John 18:13), was raised to that office, and probably Annas was now made president of the Sanhedrim, or deputy or coadjutor of the high priest, and thus was also called high priest along with Caiaphas ( Luke 3:2). By the Mosaic law the high-priesthood was held for life ( Num. 3:10); and although Annas had been deposed by the Roman procurator, the Jews may still have regarded him as legally the high priest. Our Lord was first brought before Annas, and after a brief questioning of him ( John 18:19-23) was sent to Caiaphas, when some members of the Sanhedrim had met, and the first trial of Jesus took place ( Matt. 26:57-68). This examination of our Lord before Annas is recorded only by John. Annas was president of the Sanhedrim before which Peter and John were brought ( Acts 4:6).
Anoint - The practice of anointing with perfumed oil was common among the Hebrews. (1.) The act of anointing was significant of consecration to a holy or sacred use; hence the anointing of the high priest ( Ex. 29:29; Lev. 4:3) and of the sacred vessels ( Ex. 30:26). The high priest and the king are thus called "the anointed" ( Lev. 4:3,Lev. 4:5,Lev. 4:16;Lev 6:20; Ps. 132:10). Anointing a king was equivalent to crowning him (1 Sam. 16:13; 2 Sam. 2:4, etc.). Prophets were also anointed (1 Kings 19:16; 1 Chr. 16:22; Ps. 105:15). The expression, "anoint the shield" ( Isa. 21:5), refers to the custom of rubbing oil on the leather of the shield so as to make it supple and fit for use in war.
(2.) Anointing was also an act of hospitality ( Luke 7:38,Luke 7:46). It was the custom of the Jews in like manner to anoint themselves with oil, as a means of refreshing or invigorating their bodies ( Deut. 28:40; Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam. 14:2; Ps. 104:15, etc.). This custom is continued among the Arabians to the present day.
(3.) Oil was used also for medicinal purposes. It was applied to the sick, and also to wounds ( Ps. 109:18; Isa. 1:6; Mark 6:13; James 5:14).
(4.) The bodies of the dead were sometimes anointed ( Mark 14:8; Luke 23:56).
(5.) The promised Deliverer is twice called the "Anointed" or Messiah ( Ps. 2:2; Dan. 9:25, Dan. 9:26), because he was anointed with the Holy Ghost ( Isa. 61:1), figuratively styled the "oil of gladness" ( Ps. 45:7; Heb. 1:9). Jesus of Nazareth is this anointed One ( John 1:41; Acts 9:22; Acts 17:2, Acts 9:3; Acts 18:5, Acts 9:28), the Messiah of the Old Testament.
Ant - (Heb. nemalah, from a word meaning to creep, cut off, destroy), referred to in Prov. 6:6; Prov 30:25, as distinguished for its prudent habits. Many ants in Palestine feed on animal substances, but others draw their nourishment partly or exclusively from vegetables. To the latter class belongs the ant to which Solomon refers. This ant gathers the seeds in the season of ripening, and stores them for future use; a habit that has been observed in ants in Texas, India, and Italy.
Antichrist - against Christ, or an opposition Christ, a rival Christ. The word is used only by the apostle John. Referring to false teachers, he says (1 John 2:18,1 John 2:22;1 John 4:3; 2 John 1:7), "Even now are there many antichrists."
(1.) This name has been applied to the "little horn" of the "king of fierce countenance" ( Dan. 7:24,Dan. 7:25;Dan 8:23-25).
(2.) It has been applied also to the "false Christs" spoken of by our Lord ( Matt. 24:5,Matt. 24:23,Matt. 24:24).
(3.) To the "man of sin" described by Paul (2 Thess. 2:3,2 Thess. 2:4,2 Thess. 2:8-10).
(4.) And to the "beast from the sea" ( Rev. 13:1;Rev 17:1-18).
Antioch - (1.) In Syria, on the river Orontes, about 16 miles from the Mediterranean, and some 300 miles north of Jerusalem. It was the metropolis of Syria, and afterwards became the capital of the Roman province in Asia. It ranked third, after Rome and Alexandria, in point of importance, of the cities of the Roman empire. It was called the "first city of the East." Christianity was early introduced into it ( Acts 11:19,Acts 11:21,Acts 11:24), and the name "Christian" was first applied here to its professors ( Acts 11:26). It is intimately connected with the early history of the gospel ( Acts 6:5;Acts 11:19,Acts 6:27,Acts 6:28,Acts 6:30;Acts 12:25;Acts 15:22-35; Gal. 2:11, Gal. 2:12). It was the great central point whence missionaries to the Gentiles were sent forth. It was the birth-place of the famous Christian father Chrysostom, who died A.D. 407. It bears the modern name of Antakia, and is now a miserable, decaying Turkish town. Like Philippi, it was raised to the rank of a Roman colony. Such colonies were ruled by "praetors" (R.V. marg., Acts 16:20, Acts 16:21).
(2.) In the extreme north of Pisidia; was visited by Paul and Barnabas on the first missionary journey ( Acts 13:14). Here they found a synagogue and many proselytes. They met with great success in preaching the gospel, but the Jews stirred up a violent opposition against them, and they were obliged to leave the place. On his return, Paul again visited Antioch for the purpose of confirming the disciples ( Acts 14:21). It has been identified with the modern Yalobatch, lying to the east of Ephesus.