It is found singly and sometimes doubly at the end of prayers ( Ps. 41:13;Ps 72:19;Ps 89:52), to confirm the words and invoke the fulfilment of them. It is used in token of being bound by an oath ( Num. 5:22; Deut. 27:15-26; Neh. 5:13; Neh 8:6; 1 Chr. 16:36). In the primitive churches it was common for the general audience to say "Amen" at the close of the prayer (1 Cor. 14:16).
The promises of God are Amen; i.e., they are all true and sure (2 Cor. 1:20).
Amethyst - one of the precious stones in the breastplate of the high priest ( Ex. 28:19;Ex 39:12), and in the foundation of the New Jerusalem ( Rev. 21:20). The ancients thought that this stone had the power of dispelling drunkenness in all who wore or touched it, and hence its Greek name formed from a_, "privative," and _methuo, "to get drunk." Its Jewish name, ahlamah', was derived by the rabbins from the Hebrew word halam, "to dream," from its supposed power of causing the wearer to dream.
It is a pale-blue crystallized quartz, varying to a dark purple blue. It is found in Persia and India, also in different parts of Europe.
Amittai - true, the father of Jonah the prophet, a native of Gath-hepher (2 Kings 14:25; Jonah 1:1).
Ammah - a cubit, the name of a hill which Joab and Abishai reached as the sun went down, when they were in pursuit of Abner (2 Sam. 2:24). It lay to the east of Gibeon.
Ammi - my people, a name given by Jehovah to the people of Israel ( Hos. 2:1,Hos. 2:23. Comp. 1:9; Ezek. 16:8; Rom. 9:25, Rom. 9:26; 1 Pet. 2:10).
Ammiel - people of God. (1.) One of the twelve spies sent by Moses to search the land of Canaan ( Num. 13:12). He was one of the ten who perished by the plague for their unfavourable report ( Num. 14:37).
(2.) The father of Machir of Lo-debar, in whose house Mephibosheth resided (2 Sam. 9:4,2 Sam. 9:5;2 Sam 17:27).
(3.) The father of Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah, and afterwards of David (1 Chr. 3:5). He is called Eliam in 2 Sam. 11:3.
(4.) One of the sons of Obed-edom the Levite (1 Chr. 26:5).
Ammihud - people of glory; i.e., "renowned." (1.) The father of the Ephraimite chief Elishama, at the time of the Exodus ( Num. 1:10;Num 2:18;Num 7:48,Num. 1:53).
(2.) Num. 34:20. (3.) Num. 34:28.
(4.) The father of Talmai, king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after the murder of Amnon (2 Sam. 13:37).
(5.) The son of Omri, and the father of Uthai (1 Chr. 9:4).
Amminadab - kindred of the prince. (1.) The father of Nahshon, who was chief of the tribe of Judah ( Num. 1:7;Num 2:3;Num 7:12,Num. 1:17;Num 10:14). His daughter Elisheba was married to Aaron ( Ex. 6:23).
(2.) A son of Kohath, the second son of Levi (1 Chr. 6:22), called also Izhar (2, 18).
(3.) Chief of the 112 descendants of Uzziel the Levite (1 Chr. 15:10,1 Chr. 15:11).
Amminadib - a person mentioned in Cant. 6:12, whose chariots were famed for their swiftness. It is rendered in the margin "my willing people," and in the Revised Version "my princely people."
Ammishaddai - people of the Almighty, the father of Ahiezer, who was chief of the Danites at the time of the Exodus ( Num. 1:12;Num 2:25). This is one of the few names compounded with the name of God, Shaddai, "Almighty."
Ammizabad - people of the giver, the son of Benaiah, who was the third and chief captain of the host under David (1 Chr. 27:6).
Ammon - another form of the name Ben-ammi, the son of Lot ( Gen. 19:38). This name is also used for his posterity ( Ps. 83:7).
Ammonite - the usual name of the descendants of Ammon, the son of Lot ( Gen. 19:38). From the very beginning ( Deut. 2:16-20) of their history till they are lost sight of ( Judg. 5:2), this tribe is closely associated with the Moabites ( Judg. 10:11; 2 Chr. 20:1; Zeph. 2:8). Both of these tribes hired Balaam to curse Israel ( Deut. 23:4). The Ammonites were probably more of a predatory tribe, moving from place to place, while the Moabites were more settled. They inhabited the country east of the Jordan and north of Moab and the Dead Sea, from which they had expelled the Zamzummims or Zuzims ( Deut. 2:20; Gen. 14:5). They are known as the Beni-ammi ( Gen. 19:38), Ammi or Ammon being worshipped as their chief god. They were of Semitic origin, and closely related to the Hebrews in blood and language. They showed no kindness to the Israelites when passing through their territory, and therefore they were prohibited from "entering the congregation of the Lord to the tenth generation" ( Deut. 23:3). They afterwards became hostile to Israel ( Judg. 3:13). Jephthah waged war against them, and "took twenty cities with a very great slaughter" ( Judg. 11:33). They were again signally defeated by Saul (1 Sam. 11:11). David also defeated them and their allies the Syrians (2 Sam. 10:6-14), and took their chief city, Rabbah, with much spoil (2 Sam. 10:14;2 Sam 12:26-31). The subsequent events of their history are noted in 2 Chr. 20:25;2 Chr 26:8; Jer. 49:1; Ezek. 25:3, Ezek. 25:6. One of Solomon's wives was Naamah, an Ammonite. She was the mother of Rehoboam (1 Kings 14:31; 2 Chr. 12:13).
The prophets predicted fearful judgments against the Ammonites because of their hostility to Israel ( Zeph. 2:8; Jer. 49:1-6; Ezek. 25:1-5, Ezek. 25:10; Amos 1:13-15).
The national idol worshipped by this people was Molech or Milcom, at whose altar they offered human sacrifices (1 Kings 11:5,1 Kings 11:7). The high places built for this idol by Solomon, at the instigation of his Ammonitish wives, were not destroyed till the time of Josiah (2 Kings 23:13).
Amnon - faithful. (1.) One of the sons of Shammai, of the children of Ezra (1 Chr. 4:20; comp. 17).
(2.) The eldest son of David, by Ahinoam of Jezreel (1 Chr. 3:1; 2 Sam. 3:2). Absalom caused him to be put to death for his great crime in the matter of Tamar (2 Sam. 13:28,2 Sam. 13:29).
Amon - builder. (1.) The governor of Samaria in the time of Ahab. The prophet Micaiah was committed to his custody (1 Kings 22:26; 2 Chr. 18:25).
(2.) The son of Manasseh, and fourteenth king of Judah. He restored idolatry, and set up the images which his father had cast down. Zephaniah 2 Chr 1:4;2 Chr 3:4,2 Chr 1:11) refers to the moral depravity prevailing in this king's reign.
He was assassinated (2 Kings 21:18-26; 2 Chr. 33:20-25) by his own servants, who conspired against him.
(3.) An Egyptian god, usually depicted with a human body and the head of a ram, referred to in Jer. 46:25, where the word "multitudes" in the Authorized Version is more appropriately rendered "Amon" in the Revised Version. In Nah. 3:8 the expression "populous No" of the Authorized version is rendered in the Revised Version "No-amon." Amon is identified with Ra, the sun-god of Heliopolis.
(4.) Neh. 7:59.
Amorites - highlanders, or hillmen, the name given to the descendants of one of the sons of Canaan ( Gen. 14:7), called Amurra or Amurri in the Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions. On the early Babylonian monuments all Syria, including Palestine, is known as "the land of the Amorites." The southern slopes of the mountains of Judea are called the "mount of the Amorites" ( Deut. 1:7,Deut. 1:19,Deut. 1:20). They seem to have originally occupied the land stretching from the heights west of the Dead Sea ( Gen. 14:7) to Hebron (13. Comp. 13:8; Deut. 3:8; Deut 4:46-48), embracing "all Gilead and all Bashan" ( Deut. 3:10), with the Jordan valley on the east of the river ( Deut 4:49), the land of the "two kings of the Amorites," Sihon and Og ( Deut. 31:4; Josh. 2:10; Josh 9:10). The five kings of the Amorites were defeated with great slaughter by Joshua Josh 10:10). They were again defeated at the waters of Merom by Joshua, who smote them till there were none remaining ( Josh. 11:8). It is mentioned as a surprising circumstance that in the days of Samuel there was peace between them and the Israelites (1 Sam. 7:14). The discrepancy supposed to exist between Deut. 1:44 and Num. 14:45 is explained by the circumstance that the terms "Amorites" and "Amalekites" are used synonymously for the "Canaanites." In the same way we explain the fact that the "Hivites" of Gen. 34:2 are the "Amorites" of 48:22. Comp. Josh. 10:6; Josh 11:19with 2 Sam. 21:2; also Num. 14:45 with Deut. 1:44. The Amorites were warlike mountaineers. They are represented on the Egyptian monuments with fair skins, light hair, blue eyes, aquiline noses, and pointed beards. They are supposed to have been men of great stature; their king, Og, is described by Moses as the last "of the remnant of the giants" ( Deut. 3:11). Both Sihon and Og were independent kings. Only one word of the Amorite language survives, "Shenir," the name they gave to Mount Hermon ( Deut. 3:9).
Amos - borne; a burden, one of the twelve minor prophets. He was a native of Tekota, the modern Tekua, a town about 12 miles south-east of Bethlehem. He was a man of humble birth, neither a "prophet nor a prophet's son," but "an herdman and a dresser of sycomore trees," R.V. He prophesied in the days of Uzziah, king of Judah, and was contemporary with Isaiah and Hosea ( Amos 1:1;Amos 7:14,Amos 1:15; Zech. 14:5), who survived him a few years. Under Jeroboam II. the kingdom of Israel rose to the zenith of its prosperity; but that was followed by the prevalence of luxury and vice and idolatry. At this period Amos was called from his obscurity to remind the people of the law of God's retributive justice, and to call them to repentance.
The Book of Amos consists of three parts:
(1.) The nations around are summoned to judgment because of their sins ( Amos 1:1 Amos 2:3). He quotes Joel 3:16.
(2.) The spiritual condition of Judah, and especially of Israel, is described ( Amos 2:4 Amos 6:14).
(3.) In Amos 7:1 to Amos 9:10 are recorded five prophetic visions. (a) The first two Amos 7:1-6) refer to judgments against the guilty people. (b) The next two Amos 7:7-9; Amos 8:1-3) point out the ripeness of the people for the threatened judgements. 7:10-17 consists of a conversation between the prophet and the priest of Bethel. (c) The fifth describes the overthrow and ruin of Israel judgements 9:1-10); to which is added the promise of the restoration of the kingdom and its final glory in the Messiah's kingdom.
The style is peculiar in the number of the allusions made to natural objects and to agricultural occupations. Other allusions show also that Amos was a student of the law as well as a "child of nature." These phrases are peculiar to him: "Cleanness of teeth" [i.e., want of bread] (4:6); "The excellency of Jacob" (6:8; 8:7); "The high places of Isaac" (7:9); "The house of Isaac" (7:16); "He that createth the wind" (4:13). Quoted, Acts 7:42.
Amoz - strong, the father of the prophet Isaiah (2 Kings 19:2,2 Kings 19:20;2 Kings 20:1; Isa. 1:1; Isa 2:1). As to his personal history little is positively known. He is supposed by some to have been the "man of God" spoken of in 2 Chr. 25:7,2 Chr. 25:8.
Amphipolis - city on both sides, a Macedonian city, a great Roman military station, through which Paul and Silas passed on their way from Philippi to Thessalonica, a distance of 33 Roman miles from Philippi ( Acts 17:1).
Amplias - a Roman Christian saluted by Paul ( Rom. 16:8).
Amram - kindred of the High; i.e., "friend of Jehovah." (1.) The son of Kohath, the son of Levi. He married Jochebed, "his father's sister," and was the father of Aaron, Miriam, and Moses ( Ex. 6:18,Ex. 6:20; Num. 3:19). He died in Egypt at the age of 137 years ( Ex. 6:20). His descendants were called Amramites ( Num. 3:27; 1 Chr. 26:23). (2.) Ezra 10:34.
Amraphel - king of Shinar, southern Chaldea, one of the confederates of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, in a war against Sodom and cities of the plain ( Gen. 14:1,Gen. 14:4). It is now found that Amraphel (or Ammirapaltu) is the Khammu-rabi whose name appears on recently-discovered monuments. (See CHEDORLAOMER ). After defeating Arioch (q.v.) he united Babylonia under one rule, and made Babylon his capital.
Anab - grape-town, one o the cities in the mountains of Judah, from which Joshua expelled the Anakim ( Josh. 11:21;Josh 15:50). It still retains its ancient name. It lies among the hills, 10 miles south-south-west of Hebron.
Anah - speech. (1.) One of the sons of Seir, and head of an Idumean tribe, called a Horite, as in course of time all the branches of this tribe were called from their dwelling in caves in Mount Seir ( Gen. 36:20,Gen. 36:29; 1 Chr. 1:38).
(2.) One of the two sons of Zibeon the Horite, and father of Esau's wife Aholibamah ( Gen. 36:18,Gen. 36:24).
Anak - long-necked, the son of Arba, father of the Anakim ( Josh. 15:13;Josh 21:11, Heb. Anok).
Anakim - the descendants of Anak ( Josh. 11:21; Num. 13:33; Deut. 9:2). They dwelt in the south of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of Hebron ( Gen. 23:2; Josh. 15:13). In the days of Abraham ( Gen. 14:5,Gen. 14:6) they inhabited the region afterwards known as Edom and Moab, east of the Jordan. They were probably a remnant of the original inhabitants of Palestine before the Canaanites, a Cushite tribe from Babel, and of the same race as the Phoenicians and the Egyptian shepherd kings. Their formidable warlike appearance, as described by the spies sent to search the land, filled the Israelites with terror. They seem to have identified them with the Nephilim, the "giants" ( Gen. 6:4; Num. 13:33) of the antediluvian age. There were various tribes of Anakim ( Josh. 15:14). Joshua finally expelled them from the land, except a remnant that found a refuge in the cities of Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod ( Josh. 11:22). The Philistine giants whom David encountered (2 Sam. 21:15-22) were descendants of the Anakim. (See GIANTS.)